Is an inflammatory disease that affects the periodontal tissues of a tooth. It starts as gingivitis and it can spread to the supporting tissues and affect the bone. It is a very common disease and it is caused by bacteria in the plaque. Bad oral hygiene is the number one factor for periodontal disease followed by other factors that can contribute such as bad habits, medicine, chronic illnesses.

This condition is also known as gum disease. It always starts in the gingiva, but if not treated it spreads to all elements of the periodontal complex. There are several types of gum disease, you can divide them into acute and chronic forms. It is considered to be number one disease in the world.


The main reason why gum disease happens is bad oral hygiene. Plaque and tartar are the two most important factors. It all starts with gingivitis but soon spreads. The tartar applies pressure to the periodontal tissues and causes a damage that cannot be repaired. Smoking is also found as one of the factors that can lead to gum disease. Patients with immunodeficiency are more prone to getting this disease. Diabetes and HIV are commonly associated with periodontal disease. Patients that already have other conditions can be very hard to treat.


The first symptoms are mild and barely noticeable. It all starts with symptoms from the gums such as bleeding, swelling, change of color to an inflamed red, bad breath and more. As the disease progresses the symptoms are very serious. They include loss of teeth, teeth that are loose and barely hold on to the socket, migration of teeth, receding gums, bleeding, pain, hypersensitivity, tartar, plaque and more. The first sign of periodontal disease is a periodontal pocket. This is a space between the tooth and the periodontal complex, that used to be full of periodontal fiber, connecting the tooth. The disease causes damage to all of the parts of the periodontal ligament, and even destroys the bone at one point. All of the damage is irreversible, so that’s why it’s important to prevent periodontal disease or treat it right away. What is starts as a painless condition can actually end with the loss of all teeth.



Prevention is the key. So to avoid all of this, you have to take care of your teeth. Brush twice a day, floss and visit a dentist at least twice a year. The diagnose is set by doing a dental exam and X-rays. The dentist will first examine the oral cavity and by using a special periodontal probe he will find out if there are any periodontal pockets present. Also, panoramic X-rays will show bone loss. If the patient has periodontal disease, the treatment is meant to stop it. The damage cannot be reversed, but dentists will help in preventing further problems. Some types of gum disease require the prescription of antibiotics. The dental treatment includes teeth cleaning, scaling and root planing. There are numerous surgical procedures that can help during the treatment.