Composite Bonding

Is a procedure where a thin layer of tooth-colored composite is molded on your teeth in order to get a better appearance. It is a non-expensive procedure that only takes one visit to the doctor. It can be used for decayed teeth, fractured, chipped, discolored, diastemas and more.

Composite bonding is a common dental procedure, that involves the placement of a composite material on a certain tooth and bonding it to the surface, usually for a better cosmetic effect. While some people decide to get veneers or crowns, other stick to composite. Bonding actually means connecting with the use of special dental materials. A composite is a tooth-colored dental material used for fillings and esthetic restoration.


Since it’s mostly used for cosmetic purposes, the composite bonding is made to look teeth appear either longer, larger, wider, straighter, whiter or more. Different patients require a different treatment. Some are struggling with spacing between the teeth, others with very short teeth. Composite bonding can be the solution to these problems. Discolored teeth, chipped, broken, are other conditions that can be treated with this procedure.


The procedure completely involves composite. The first thing the dentist has to do is find a proper color that perfectly fits your teeth. In some cases, they even use several colors to achieve the final effect. Once they do, they start applying the composite to the surfaces of the teeth and mold it until they get the shape that you’ve requested. In some cases, the dentist might need to remove a very small portion of the enamel from the surface. With that, you will get a more natural look of the final restoration. Once the composite is in place, they use a light. The final step is polishing to get a high shine. This is the direct technique of doing composite bonding. The indirect technique involves preparing the teeth, taking an impression and sending it to the dental lab. The technicians get a mold based on the impression and create the restoration on the mold from the composite. They send it back to the dentist, who bonds it straight to the surface of the teeth.

composite treatment


Composite bonding is a much more affordable procedure compared to dental veneers, crowns or bridges. That is why a lot of patients decide to do it. Another thing is that if you have a quality dentist, the esthetic can be just as good as with these restorations. In most cases, the bonding can be done in only one visit, so there is no need for waiting. You get the final product in just an hour. Veneers and crowns require several visits. It doesn’t include the loss of dental substances, which is not the case with the other restorations. There is no pain involved, but if there is a chance of discomfort the dentist will offer you an anesthesia.


There are cases when the esthetics is not as good as the one provided by veneers and crowns. Patients have to be aware of this fact. Another thing is that the composite is not as strong as porcelain, so patients have to be careful not to apply too much pressure to the frontal teeth. Stains can occur after a certain time.


Composite – the dental composite is one of the most frequently used materials in dentistry. It is a tooth-colored material that can be used for dental fillings and for cosmetic dentistry. It has a lot of advantages compared to amalgam and other filling materials. It provides great esthetics, it bonds chemically to the tooth’s structures, less removal of tooth’s structure, it doesn’t contain any mercury, inexpensive and more.


This is the most commonly used material for dental fillings. Caries is a very frequent disease, so once the dentist removes it, the cavity has to be filled with a material. In the past it was the amalgam, today it is usually composite. Different brands offer different types of composites. There are also composites that are preferably used for frontal teeth and are great for aesthetics, and ones used for posterior and can withhold a larger pressure. Another common use of this material is for cosmetic purposes. That means that patients can get a white, straighter smile. It is not indicated in all cases but can help with mild spacing, short teeth, mild forms of crooked teeth, chipped, broken and more.



The procedure of composite placing is very simple. The dentist has already prepared the cavity and removed the whole tooth decay. The following step includes the placement of composite, with special instruments. He does that in layers, and every layer is exposed to a light, that makes it hard. Once the tooth shape is achieved, the dentist will use rotating brushes to polish the filing. If the composite is used for cosmetic dentistry, the dentist simply creates the requested shape with the material.

tooth restoration


The pros include the fact that it is a tooth-colored material, that comes in many shades and forms. With this material, dentists can get really creative and achieve the effect that they are looking for. They are easily bonded to the tooth surface without the need for additional retention. That is why the dentist is able to save a lot of the tooth’s substances. During the process, dentists use an acid, that makes micro-spaces on the tooth, where the dental composite retains. It provides additional adhesion. When it comes to cosmetic dentistry, they cost significantly less than veneers and crowns. The process is simple and can only take 15 minutes. Everything gets done in one visit.


The disadvantage is that it costs more than an amalgam silver filing. There are still patients that can’t afford to get composite filings. Some medical insurances cover the larger portion of the cost. The composite material is not as strong as amalgam, but the latest advancements provide so many types that it’s much easier to find one that is perfect for posterior teeth. Another thing that patients have to be aware of is that they might experience some post-treatment sensitivity, but it goes away very fast. Composites don’t last forever, and they can change color. The reason behind this is the consumption of drinks and foods that can stain. Also, smoking can cause the fillings to become darker.

Cosmetic Dentistry

A variety of procedures your dentist can perform to improve your appearance and give you a better smile. The procedures include dental whitening, composite bonding, veneers, crowns and bridges, tooth reshaping and contouring, dental implants. It can also refer to the surrounding soft tissues such as gums.

This is a field of dentistry completely dedicated to achieving a perfect smile. A lot of people are not happy with how their smile looks like, so they are looking for the perfect ways to improve it. With the advancements in dentistry, everything is possible. The best procedure varies from one patient to another. Some just want a brighter smile, while others are not happy with the shape of their teeth. That is why the whole treatment for some is very simple, but for others involves a full mouth reconstruction.



tooth bleachingTooth whitening is a procedure that provides a brighter smile. Teeth can be discolored due to intrinsic and extrinsic factors. There are two types of bleaching: in-office and at home. The in-office one is always the recommended version because it is done by a professional. It is the safest way to a white smile since the whitening agents can be damaging to the teeth and the surrounding tissues. If you decide to get your teeth whitened at home, make sure that you are following the instructions of the bleaching agent.

Composite Bonding

This procedure includes the use of composite materials to improve the appearance of the smile. It can be used for teeth with mild spacing, short teeth, chipped, cracked, broken, discolored, teeth with abnormal shapes and more. It is the more affordable version compared to getting veneers.


Veneers, Crowns, Bridges

These are all restorations that can both be used when are necessary, or as a part of cosmetic dentistry. Veneers are thin shells of material, placed on the vestibular surfaces of teeth. They provide an amazing esthetic and can last a very long time. They are more expensive compared to composite restorations but are long-lasting and better-looking than them. Also, the veneers can be done with different materials. They save a lot of tooth substance and require very little to no preparation.


Crowns and bridges are restorations that cover the whole remaining part of the tooth. Crowns are meant for only one tooth, while bridges are placed on several teeth in a row. They require special preparation of the teeth and can be made from different materials. Highly esthetic restorations, with a long survival period.

Tooth Reshaping and Contouring

This procedure involves the removal of enamel in order to achieve a better look. Some teeth have an irregular shape, so dentists can add a small touch to make them look more appealing. This is used for longer teeth, wide teeth chipped, cracked irregular and more.

chipping repair

Dental Implants

Implants are meant to replace a missing tooth. They include a root-shaped part that is placed where the root of the actual tooth was inside the bone. And it is a surgical procedure that requires a longer period. On top of the implant, dentists place crowns that look exactly like the missing tooth.

dental implant

Cracked tooth syndrome

Is a syndrome that usually affects the molars and includes a crack in the tooth that is of different dimensions, sometimes very small and hard to notice, while others it can affect the dental pulp. It is a part of the dental traumatology, and its main sign is sharp pain. The pain is heightened when the person puts pressure on the tooth, for example when he bites or chews. The patient can also feel more intense pain when he applies hot or cold. The causes of a cracked tooth symptom can vary from a person that grinds their teeth, a person with a very strong bite force, a tooth that has undergone root treatment, large tooth fillings and more. The treatment depends on the severity of the crack. In some cases, it can be treated with a filling, others require a dental crown, and the most severe ones- extraction. If it is not treated it can affect the dental pulp.


The causes are usually some type of trauma to the teeth. It can be done by a very strong force such as a mechanical force, a fall or a hit with a hard object. People who suffer from bruxism, grind and clench their teeth can also suffer from this syndrome. Some teeth had to be restored with large fillings. Now they are vulnerable and they can crack in time because of a strong bite force. There are patients that have a very strong bite force and can crack their own teeth. Non-vital teeth are much weaker compared to vital ones. So they can all suffer from this syndrome.

cracked tooth


The first symptom is always a very sharp pain. Sometimes it can be spontaneous, while some patients experience it once they bite on the tooth. The masticatory pressure makes it even worse. Also, the pain is induced by cold and hot beverages and food. In some cases, the patient can’t exactly point out to the tooth that causes the symptoms. But there are also patients that can specifically locate the tooth. It all depends on the crack, the localization, and the size. Other symptoms include a pain that becomes even sharper after the patient stops chewing on the tooth or each time they apply any type of pressure.

cracked teeth stages

The first thing you have to do if you experience these symptoms is to call your dentist. They will be able to properly diagnose the condition and suggest treatment. This syndrome can be hard to diagnose. X-rays usually don’t show any cracks. That is why dentists use other additional techniques such as light and pressure tests to discover the right reason behind the pain. The treatment depends on whether the crack has affected the dental pulp or not. If not, dentists will try to repair the tooth with a dental filling. Another type of treatment includes a crown, that will protect the tooth from further damage. If the pulp is affected the dentist will have to perform a root canal. When all of the above is not successful, the last treatment option is extraction.

Cystic lesion

There are many different types of cystic lesions that can appear in the oral cavity. The most common one is the periapical cyst that appears as a result of pulpal necrosis. If the pulpitis is not treated on time it can lead to periapical lesions that can turn to cysts. In a lot of cases cysts do not show any signs, until they get bigger proportions and start causing symptoms. The treatment is surgical removal of the cyst.

Dental cysts can appear in all of the locations in the mouth. It can derive from different types of tissues. That is why cysts are divided into several groups according to their location and the tissue they were made from. They grow during a long period of time, and they are usually asymptomatic. During that time, they are not infected, but once they are the cysts start showing symptoms.

cystic lesion


For cysts that appear on the root of teeth the cause is infection and necrosis. If the tooth was not treated on time, and the infection spread from the root canal to the periapical tissues, they might react with the formation of a cysts. A lot of non-vital teeth with improper root canal treatment can also develop cysts. A lot of other cysts appear because of some developmental tissues that appear in different locations of the mouth including the jaws, and soft tissues.


There is a wide range of symptoms that can vary from mild pain and pressure, to huge bone defects. As mentioned, cysts tend to be asymptomatic for a very long period. They can develop for many years, and be accidently discovered with an x-ray. If the content becomes infected they will start showing symptoms. Dental cysts usually cause pain and swelling that can be very noticeable on the external appearance. They can be so large that they also affect other teeth, make them mobile, affect nerves, soft tissues, large portions of bone and more. The bone can be so weak that it might even break. There will be swelling that depends on the size of the cysts and is connected with the location.


The treatment always includes surgical removal of the cysts. Some teeth will be saved with a root canal procedure, but in other cases they might have to be extracted. If the bone defect is large, dentists use bone grafts to repair the hole. There are two types of procedures when it comes to dental cysts. The first one is cystectomy and it is indicated for smaller cysts. With this procedure, the dentist completely removes the cyst. Cystotomy is meant for large cysts that affect significant surrounding tissues and cannot be completely removed. That is why surgeons remove only the parts they can and the cysts is tamponaded. Marsupialization is another option, when the cysts is open and all of its contents are drained. Cysts can be a very serious problem, that leads to broken jaws and more. That is why regular visits and checkups with the dentists are required.


Also known as the dental cavity, is the destruction of the tooth’s hard tissues (enamel, dentin, cementum) caused by bacteria that produce acids. The risk factors that can lead to cavity are poor oral hygiene, food that contains a lot of sugar, dry mouth, diseases such as diabetes and more. Tooth decay is one of the most common problems in dentistry. A lot of people are still not aware of the importance of regular dental visits and good oral hygiene, so don’t take proper care of their teeth. That is why they suffer from decay.


The whole decaying process starts on the surface of the teeth. The bacteria located in the dental plaque have the ability to create whole formations that actually live there and feed on the remains of food in the mouth. If you haven’t brushed properly or flossed, these food remains, with the debris are the perfect food for all these bacteria. They are especially happy with sugars, which can be easily transformed into acids. The acids that bacteria releases are very damaging to the enamel. After a certain time, if the persistence of tartar and plaque continues, the chances are there will also be dental caries. The patient might not feel any symptoms during this time, and it is usually discovered by the dentist. From there the decay spreads to the dentin, that is also less calcified compared to enamel. In other words, this is the tissue where caries can spread faster. Also, the dentin is the substance that has a lot of neural endings and is very sensitive to irritations. That is why patients feel pain once the process has reached the dentin. If the decay is not treated on time, it can spread to the dental pulp. Once it’s reached the pulp the process is irreversible, and the dentist will have to devitalize the tooth.

dental decay


As mentioned before, in the first phase, patients don’t usually experience symptoms. Once caries has reached to the dentin, those nerve endings become exposed and are very sensitive. Patients feel sharp pain, that is caused by irritants. The most common ones are cold drinks and foods and also the intake of sugar. They might also feel pain due to pressure, in other words, if they chew on the decayed teeth. It all depends on the depth and location of caries. The decay can have different appearances. Dentists notice visible holes in the teeth, with a different color. If the decay is fairly new, then it will have a light color such as cream to brownish. If it is a chronic one, it will be colored grey or black.


The treatment includes complete removal of the decayed parts of the tooth. Dentists do that with rotary instruments and create clean cavities. The most common material used for fillings these days is composite. It has the same color as teeth and it is the perfect aesthetic material, so the filled tooth will appear just like the surrounding ones.

Dental abscess

An abscess is a collection of pus that is located around the root of a tooth, between the root and the gums or inside the bones of the jaws. This is a serious condition that requires medical attention. The abscess that is located on the tip of a root is called periapical abscess, while the one that is located in the gums is called periodontal abscess.


The abscess is caused by a bacterial infection and it causes pain. The most common reason for an abscess is dental caries, and other reasons include periodontal disease, dental trauma and more.


The main symptom of dental abscess is pain. The pain is usually very sharp and more intense when you bite on the tooth, the tooth is very sensitive, there might be a slight fever, unpleasant breath. The pain intensifies when the patient lies down, and it might spread to the ear, neck, and jaws. The pain can be located on the area where the tooth is, but sometimes patients complain of an intense pain that radiates towards the head, ear, temporal bone, neck and more depending on the location of the tooth. The whole area is swollen and there is usually redness in the affected mucosa surrounding the tooth. Patients are sensitive to cold and hot drinks and foods. They usually can’t put their upper and lower teeth together, because that is when they experience severe pain. They can have a higher body temperature and swollen lymph nodes. Most patients have a weird taste in their mouth. When it pain starts it is milder, but it becomes more intense in the following period. Patients have a difficulty in eating, swallowing and chewing. Insomnia is another symptom, due to the intense pain.

dental abscess


Every abscess should be treated because the infection might spread and cause greater problems. The main goal of the treatment is to drain the abscess by making an incision or performing a root canal treatment. If the root canal treatment is not successful, the tooth has to be extracted. Once the dentist has performed an incision or has perforated the crown and the abscess is drained, the pain goes away. Every dentist will try to perform a root canal to save the tooth first. If it is properly done, the chances of success are high.


There are three types of an abscess. The first one is periapical and it’s the most common one. It is located on the tip of the root and the causes include dental caries and all of the other factors that affect the health of the dental pulp. Once the pulp is infected, and not treated with a root canal procedure, the infection spreads into the periapical tissues. That is how an abscess occurs. The second type is periodontal, and the location is in the periodontium. It happens as a result of periodontal disease. It is also characterized by the collection of pus and pain. A gingival abscess is the third type, that is only located in the gum tissue. The most common location is right next to the neck of the tooth.


Dental Bridgeworks

Dental bridges are dental restorations that are made to fill the gaps from missing teeth and help to fully restore the function in the mouth. On both sides of the gap, there should be natural teeth or dental implants that will support the bridge. The bridge consists of two or more crowns that are placed on the natural teeth, and the gaps are filled with false teeth.

Dental bridges are made of several crowns. Once there are one or several missing teeth in the mouth, the patient is probably eligible to get a bridgework restoration. The only thing that is important is that the gap has to be limited to at least two remaining teeth. Bridges are fixed restorations, which means that once they are placed, the patient won’t be able to remove them.

Parts of a bridge:

Every dental bridge consists of several parts. The teeth that are located on both sides of the gap are called abutment teeth. They are the ones that accept the masticatory pressure and transfer it to the surrounding tissues. These two or more teeth will be covered with crowns. The crowns are known as anchor or retainer crowns. They are first prepared by the dentist and reduced in size. The gap is also filled with false teeth known as pontics or artificial.

dental bridge


The procedure starts with a visit to the dental office. During this checkup, the dentist will be able to advise you whether bridges are the best option for your case. If that is the final conclusion, you can choose between different types of materials. Metals, composite, porcelain are the three most common materials used. When the patient has made a choice, the dentist starts preparing the remaining teeth that will be a part of the bridge. He will reduce them so they can be covered with a crown. The following step includes an impression, that is later sent to the dental lab. That is where technicians create the bridge, and once it’s done it can be placed in the mouth.

zirconia bridge


Dental bridgework is of high importance in dentistry. Thanks to these constructions dentists can add teeth to toothless gaps and restore the normal functions of patients. So aside from the aesthetic moment, where these restorations provide a beautiful smile, their meaning is much larger. First of all, the patient will be able to bite, eat and chew like before. A lot of people have very low self-esteem after they lose their natural teeth, so that can cause a lot of problems in their life. Fortunately, with bridges, all of those problems will go away. They can restore a bad smile, into a gorgeous one, with perfect white teeth. Patients will be able to speak clearly and pronounce everything just like before. The restoration of missing teeth with bridges prevents further damage to the remaining teeth and to all the surrounding structures in the mouth. Thanks to these fixed restorations the whole balance in the oral cavity is once again back.

dental bridgework

Dental Crown

Is a fixed prosthetic “cap” that is placed on a tooth to improve its function, anatomy, and aesthetics. Dental crowns are very commonly used and can be made of different materials such as metal, porcelain combined with metal, all-resin, but lately with the advance of technology all-porcelain and zirconia crowns are the best options.

Dental crowns are the most commonly used fixed restorations. They are indicated in so many cases and have a very versatile use. Whether it’s a missing tooth and they are a part of a bridge, a severely damaged one, aesthetic reasons, these are all reasons of why a patient might need to get a crown. Dental crowns are also placed on top of implants.


A damaged tooth is the number one use for dental crowns. The damage can be caused by dental caries or a traumatic factor. Sometimes people trip, fall, get hit, so teeth can easily break. If a composite restoration is not the answer, then the second thing to get is a crown. When it comes to caries, some teeth are severely damaged and need to be restored with a fixed crown. There are patients that need to get crowns for a better appearance of their smile as a part of a cosmetic procedure. These patients might have discolored teeth or teeth affected by a certain condition.

full ceramic crowns


The first step is a visit to the dentist and consultation. If your dentist thinks that a crown is something you should consider, you have to decide which type you’ll get. The prices vary from the material. The latest crowns that are fully made of porcelain with the CAD/CAM system are the most expensive one. The following step includes taking a dental impression from both of your jaws. If you decide to go with the CAD/CAM system you skip this step and the dentist will get 3D images from your mouth with a special camera. Once he has the impression, he sends it to the dental lab. Technicians create the crown and send it back to the office. The dentist will try it on, and if you are happy with the final result you will leave with a new crown. Sometimes there are still small changes that need to be made. The crowns are bonded to the teeth with special materials.

tooth preparation


Crowns are made to completely restore the anatomy of a tooth. When the tooth is suffering from a large decay or is broken, chipped, the function of that tooth is impaired. The patient is not able to eat, bite, chew, and might feel ashamed because of the bad look of his smile. First of all, with the new crown, all of the normal functions in the mouth are restored, including eating, speaking, chewing, and the general appearance. Crowns are esthetic restorations that look exactly like the remaining teeth. The only thing that is a disadvantage is that they can be very expensive and a lot of people can’t afford them. In some cases, crowns are used in cosmetic dentistry for people who want a better-looking smile.

Dental Laser

Is a laser specially designed to be used in dentistry for performing different intraoral procedures. It is a relatively new and expensive way of treatment, but it is very effective and it offers a wide range of procedures. The laser can be used in endodontics, surgery, decayed teeth, for teeth whitening, for treating gum disease and more.



If your dentist has a laser in their office they can use it to diagnose a number of conditions including initial caries lesions, especially the ones located in the fissures and the approximal surfaces. These two types are very hard to diagnose by just looking at and examining the teeth. Sometimes lasers are used to diagnose some pre-cancerous lesions and also dental calculus.

Hard-tissue Application:

Lasers are used to remove dental caries. Compared to the conventional removal, lasers are proven to be superior for many reasons. The first one is definitely the patient and the fact that they barely feel any pain or discomfort. Conventional removal of decay is painful and one of the reasons why patients avoid going to the doctor. The second one is that lasers are very efficient in terms of completely removing the decayed tissue, and leaving completely clean margins without any bacteria. These lasers can be also applied for removal of old composite fillings and restorations.

dental laser


This is usually a cosmetic procedure that involves reshaping and contouring the shape of the tooth. Some teeth can be asymmetrical, longer or have some sharp edges. That is when enamleloplasty is indicated. Lasers can be used to perform this procedure.

-Removing calculus. Calculus is also a hard tissue that is very tightly attached to the surfaces of teeth. It can be removed by hand, special instruments or with a laser. The removal of a laser is painless, simple and precise. In the same time, they decontaminate the surfaces of the crown and root, leaving them clean and protecting them from bacteria.

-Whitening is a cosmetic procedure that can be done on vital and non-vital teeth. Lasers are used to accelerate and activate the bleaching agent. In other words, they make the procedure much better.


There are several procedures that can be done with a laser including osteoplasty, crown lengthening, ostectomy and more. Lasers are very precise in cutting bone and reshaping it. They also destroy bacteria while doing that are extremely precise.


Dentist can use dental lasers to create micropores in the dental substances that are necessary for the retention of fillings.

Treating hypersensitivity:

There are numerous studies which show that lasers can treat dental hypersensitivity.

Soft-tissue application:

Among the numerous things that lasers can do they can also be used on soft-tissues in the oral cavity. Dentists can perform biopsies, which are very precise and almost painless, treat some malignant conditions, disinfect root canals, do surgical procedures including cuts, gingivoplasty, frenectomy, frenotomy, operculotomy, treat aphthae and oral herpes and more.

dental laser surgery

Other uses include: endodontics (decontamination of root canals, preparation of root canals, enlargement and more), pedodontics (easier for children because there is no pain and almost no sound), periodontics (periodontal surgery, help with the treatment of periodontal disease) and more.