Gingival Hyperplasia is a condition also known as enlargement, overgrowth, hypertrophy, that is characterized by an enlarged gingival tissue.
The gums have a regular anatomical structure that has a pink color and a textured surface. They fill the spaces in between teeth and cover their necks. They reach to the part of the tooth where the crown starts. But as a result of a number of reasons, this size and shape can be altered. Gingival hyperplasia is characterized by a large gingiva caused by different factors.
The list of causes is really extensive. The most important thing is to find the factor that causes the hyperplasia. The reasons can be divided into five groups:
1. Inflammatory factors: Inflammation can easily cause enlargement. This happens with every single part of the body, it’s the same process. If there is a certain inflammatory process going on in the gums, they can become larger than usual. It is the most common type of hyperplasia. It’s called a chronic inflammatory enlargement with a significant edema going on in the tissue. There are signs of inflammatory cells, a response by the immune system and the result is a larger gingiva. The factor that actually caused this to happen in plaque and the bacteria present in it.
2. Systemic diseases: unfortunately, a lot of systemic diseases are connected with hyperplasia. This group includes leukemia, benign and malignant tumors, puberty, pregnancy, granulomatous conditions, false enlargement caused by another tissue such as bone, Vitamin C deficiency and more.
3. Drug-Related: certain types of medication can cause gingival hyperplasia. Research shows that this is also a genetically connected condition. Antidepressants, antihypertensives, immunosuppressants, anticonvulsants are just a part of the drugs that are related to this condition.
4. False enlargement
5. Neoplastic nature
The symptoms are obvious. The gums notice a change in shape and color. They are much larger than usual and don’t have the recognizable triangular shape between the teeth. The gingiva is red and often bleeding. The bleeding can be spontaneous or provoked. The gums are very sensitive and sometimes even painful. They are tender and have a more intense raspberry color. The patient might experience difficulties in eating, chewing and swallowing. There will be a bad breath present. They will have a hard time providing oral hygiene because of the pain, so there might also be the plaque on the teeth. The enlargement depends on the individual case. Sometimes the gums can cover the whole surfaces of teeth, which is a serious case.
If you ever notice that your gums are larger than they should be, you should turn to your dentist. Since the most common reason for gingival hyperplasia is bad oral hygiene, the treatment starts there. Good oral hygiene is key to improving the condition. Another important step is to find out whether there is another factor that can cause the inflammation. If there are any systemic diseases, they have to be treated by the proper doctor. Medicine that causes this effect has to be switched with another type. If there is a chronic enlargement, in some cases it has to be treated surgically with a gingivectomy. The most important part is to figure out what causes the reaction and completely removing it.