There are many different types of cystic lesions that can appear in the oral cavity. The most common one is the periapical cyst that appears as a result of pulpal necrosis. If the pulpitis is not treated on time it can lead to periapical lesions that can turn to cysts. In a lot of cases cysts do not show any signs, until they get bigger proportions and start causing symptoms. The treatment is surgical removal of the cyst.
Dental cysts can appear in all of the locations in the mouth. It can derive from different types of tissues. That is why cysts are divided into several groups according to their location and the tissue they were made from. They grow during a long period of time, and they are usually asymptomatic. During that time, they are not infected, but once they are the cysts start showing symptoms.
For cysts that appear on the root of teeth the cause is infection and necrosis. If the tooth was not treated on time, and the infection spread from the root canal to the periapical tissues, they might react with the formation of a cysts. A lot of non-vital teeth with improper root canal treatment can also develop cysts. A lot of other cysts appear because of some developmental tissues that appear in different locations of the mouth including the jaws, and soft tissues.
There is a wide range of symptoms that can vary from mild pain and pressure, to huge bone defects. As mentioned, cysts tend to be asymptomatic for a very long period. They can develop for many years, and be accidently discovered with an x-ray. If the content becomes infected they will start showing symptoms. Dental cysts usually cause pain and swelling that can be very noticeable on the external appearance. They can be so large that they also affect other teeth, make them mobile, affect nerves, soft tissues, large portions of bone and more. The bone can be so weak that it might even break. There will be swelling that depends on the size of the cysts and is connected with the location.
The treatment always includes surgical removal of the cysts. Some teeth will be saved with a root canal procedure, but in other cases they might have to be extracted. If the bone defect is large, dentists use bone grafts to repair the hole. There are two types of procedures when it comes to dental cysts. The first one is cystectomy and it is indicated for smaller cysts. With this procedure, the dentist completely removes the cyst. Cystotomy is meant for large cysts that affect significant surrounding tissues and cannot be completely removed. That is why surgeons remove only the parts they can and the cysts is tamponaded. Marsupialization is another option, when the cysts is open and all of its contents are drained. Cysts can be a very serious problem, that leads to broken jaws and more. That is why regular visits and checkups with the dentists are required.