What is an Anaphylactic shock and how to treat it?
An anaphylactic shock is immunsystem related, meaning its caused by an overwhelming allergic reaction. For example Penicillin or a local anesthetic agent can act as allergens causing this type of reaction.
The allergen can enter the body by ingestion, inhaling or transdermal.
Ige, which are antibodies produced by plasmacells after an allergen triggered the production in an earlier stage. If an allergen enters again the body, it binds to the Ige located on the mastcells.
Once bind, the mastcells are releasing histamins which are triggering the following functions:
-Bronchoconstruction(shortness of breath)
-Constriction of periphere blood vessels
An anaphylactoid shock is non immunsystem related, that means the shock is triggered by substances which are affecting by substances like radiographic contrast substances, drugs..
This substances are damaging the membrane of mastcells and caausing therefore the release of histamins. In that way they are not Ige related and can occur even the indidviduum hasnt been exposed before by any substance which triggers this reaction.
How to treat an anaphylactic shock?
-Removal of the allergen
-Supply of Oxygen
-Trendlenburg position(resting of the individuum on the floor with elevated legs to allow a bettter blood supply of brain and cardiac system)
-First Line drug is Epinephrine(Epi Pen injection)
-Second line :
-Anthistiamins wherein we have to differentiate in between first generation antihistamins (H1-Diphenhydramine-can penetrate blood-bran barrier) and (H2-Ranitidine-cant penetrate blood-brain barrier)
-Stay and monitor the patient(biphasic anaphylaxis)